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Protein Domain : IPR014310

Name  Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR Short Name  Sig_transdc_His_kinase_PhoR
Type  Family Description  Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions []. Some bacteria can contain up to as many as 200 two-component systems that need tight regulation to prevent unwanted cross-talk []. These pathways have been adapted to response to a wide variety of stimuli, including nutrients, cellular redox state, changes in osmolarity, quorum signals, antibiotics, and more []. Two-component systems are comprised of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and its cognate response regulator (RR) []. The HK catalyses its own auto-phosphorylation followed by the transfer of the phosphoryl group to the receiver domain on RR; phosphorylation of the RR usually activates an attached output domain, which can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Some HK are bifunctional, catalysing both the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of their cognate RR. The input stimuli can regulate either the kinase or phosphatase activity of the bifunctional HK.A variant of the two-component system is the phospho-relay system. Here a hybrid HK auto-phosphorylates and then transfers the phosphoryl group to an internal receiver domain, rather than to a separate RR protein. The phosphoryl group is then shuttled to histidine phosphotransferase (HPT) and subsequently to a terminal RR, which can evoke the desired response [, ].Signal transducing histidine kinases are the key elements in two-component signal transduction systems, which control complex processes such as the initiation of development in microorganisms [, ]. Examples of histidine kinases are EnvZ, which plays a central role in osmoregulation [], and CheA, which plays a central role in the chemotaxis system []. Histidine kinases usually have an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal kinase domain, but other domains may also be present. The kinase domain is responsible for the autophosphorylation of the histidine with ATP, the phosphotransfer from the kinase to an aspartate of the response regulator, and (with bifunctional enzymes) the phosphotransfer from aspartyl phosphate back to ADP or to water []. The kinase core has a unique fold, distinct from that of the Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase superfamily. HKs can be roughly divided into two classes: orthodox and hybrid kinases [, ]. Most orthodox HKs, typified by the Escherichia coliEnvZ protein, function as periplasmic membrane receptors and have a signal peptide and transmembrane segment(s) that separate the protein into a periplasmic N-terminal sensing domain and a highly conserved cytoplasmic C-terminal kinase core. Members of this family, however, have an integral membrane sensor domain. Not all orthodox kinases are membrane bound, e.g., the nitrogen regulatory kinase NtrB (GlnL) is a soluble cytoplasmic HK []. Hybrid kinases contain multiple phosphodonor and phosphoacceptor sites and use multi-step phospho-relay schemes instead of promoting a single phosphoryl transfer. In addition to the sensor domain and kinase core, they contain a CheY-like receiver domain and a His-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) domain.This entry represents the regulatory histidine kinases PhoR that are associated with the phosphate ABC transporter found in most Proteobacteria, and related proteins from Gram-positive organisms are excluded. The phoR gene usually is adjacent to the response regulator phoB gene ().

Publication Counts Displayer

0 Child Features

5 Contains

DB identifier Name Short Name Type
IPR000014 PAS domain PAS Domain
IPR013767 PAS fold PAS_fold Domain
IPR005467 Signal transduction histidine kinase, core Sig_transdc_His_kinase_core Domain
IPR003661 Signal transduction histidine kinase EnvZ-like, dimerisation/phosphoacceptor domain EnvZ-like_dim/P Domain
IPR004358 Signal transduction histidine kinase-related protein, C-terminal Sig_transdc_His_kin-like_C Domain

1 Cross References

Identifier
Source . Name

Subject . Primary Identifier
TIGR02966 TIGRFAMs IPR014310

2 Data Sets

Name URL
InterPro data set  
InterPro GO Annotation data set  

0 Found In

4 GO Annotation


Subject . Secondary Identifier

Subject . Name

Subject . Symbol

Ontology Term . Identifier

Ontology Term . Name
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0000155 phosphorelay sensor kinase activity
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0004673 protein histidine kinase activity
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0000160 phosphorelay signal transduction system
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0016021 integral component of membrane

4 Ontology Annotations


Subject . Secondary Identifier

Subject . Name

Subject . Symbol

Ontology Term . Identifier

Ontology Term . Name
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0000155 phosphorelay sensor kinase activity
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0004673 protein histidine kinase activity
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0000160 phosphorelay signal transduction system
Signal transduction histidine kinase, phosphate regulon sensor PhoR   GO:0016021 integral component of membrane

0 Parent Features

0 Proteins