modENCODE |  Help |  blog

Protein Domain : IPR013766

Name  Thioredoxin domain Short Name  Thioredoxin_domain
Type  Domain Description  Thioredoxins [, , , ]are small disulphide-containing redox proteins that have been found in all the kingdoms of living organisms. Thioredoxin serves as a general protein disulphide oxidoreductase. It interacts with a broad range of proteins by a redox mechanism based on reversible oxidation of two cysteine thiol groups to a disulphide, accompanied by the transfer of two electrons and two protons. The net result is the covalent interconversion of a disulphide and a dithiol. In the NADPH-dependent protein disulphide reduction, thioredoxin reductase (TR) catalyses the reduction of oxidised thioredoxin (trx) by NADPH using FAD and its redox-active disulphide; reduced thioredoxin then directly reduces the disulphide in the substrate protein [].Thioredoxin is present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the sequence around the redox-active disulphide bond is well conserved. All thioredoxins contain a cis-proline located in a loop preceding beta-strand 4, which makes contact with the active site cysteines, and is important for stability and function []. Thioredoxin belongs to a structural family that includes glutaredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, bacterial protein disulphide isomerase DsbA, and the N-terminal domain of glutathione transferase []. Thioredoxins have a beta-alpha unit preceding the motif common to all these proteins.A number of eukaryotic proteins contain domains evolutionary related to thioredoxin, most of them are protein disulphide isomerases (PDI). PDI () [, , ]is an endoplasmic reticulum multi-functional enzyme that catalyses the formation and rearrangement of disulphide bonds during protein folding []. All PDI contains two or three (ERp72) copies of the thioredoxin domain, each of which contributes to disulphide isomerase activity, but which are functionally non-equivalent []. Moreover, PDI exhibits chaperone-like activity towards proteins that contain no disulphide bonds, i.e. behaving independently of its disulphide isomerase activity []. The various forms of PDI which are currently known are:PDI major isozyme; a multifunctional protein that also function as the beta subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (), as a component of oligosaccharyl transferase (), as thyroxine deiodinase (), as glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase () and as a thyroid hormone-binding proteinERp60 (ER-60; 58 Kd microsomal protein). ERp60 was originally thought to be a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isozyme and later to be a protease.ERp72.ERp5.Bacterial proteins that act as thiol:disulphide interchange proteins that allows disulphide bond formation in some periplasmic proteins also contain a thioredoxin domain. These proteins include:Escherichia coliDsbA (or PrfA) and its orthologs in Vibrio cholerae(TtcpG) and Haemophilus influenzae(Por).E. coli DsbC (or XpRA) and its orthologues in Erwinia chrysanthemiand H. influenzae.E. coli DsbD (or DipZ) and its H. influenzae orthologue.E. coli DsbE (or CcmG) and orthologues in H. influenzae.Rhodobacter capsulatus(Rhodopseudomonas capsulata) (HelX), Rhiziobiacae (CycY and TlpA).This entry represents the thioredoxin domain.

Publication Counts Displayer

1 Child Features

DB identifier Name Short Name Type
IPR005788 Disulphide isomerase Disulphide_isomerase Domain

1 Contains

DB identifier Name Short Name Type
IPR017937 Thioredoxin, conserved site Thioredoxin_CS Conserved_site

1 Cross References

Identifier
Source . Name

Subject . Primary Identifier
PF00085 PFAM IPR013766

3 Data Sets

Name URL
Swiss-Prot data set http://ca.expasy.org/sprot
InterPro data set  
InterPro GO Annotation data set  

5 Found In

DB identifier Name Short Name Type
IPR005792 Protein disulphide isomerase Prot_disulphide_isomerase Family
IPR017068 Protein disulphide-isomerase A4 Protein_diS-isomerase_A4 Family
IPR005746 Thioredoxin Thioredoxin Family
IPR021170 DnaJ homolog, subfamily C DnaJ_homolog_subfam-C Family
IPR004508 Thioredoxin-independent 5'-adenylylsulphate reductase Thioredoxin-indep_APS_Rdtase Family

1 GO Annotation


Subject . Secondary Identifier

Subject . Name

Subject . Symbol

Ontology Term . Identifier

Ontology Term . Name
Thioredoxin domain   GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis

1 Ontology Annotations


Subject . Secondary Identifier

Subject . Name

Subject . Symbol

Ontology Term . Identifier

Ontology Term . Name
Thioredoxin domain   GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis

1 Parent Features

DB identifier Name Short Name Type
IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like fold Thioredoxin-like_fold Domain

322 Proteins

DB identifier Primary Accession
Organism . Name
FBpp0083547 Q9VD62 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0292398 Q9VYV3 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0305170 M9PGX2 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0085660 Q7JW12 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0080044 Q9VJZ6 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0080049 Q9VJZ1 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0083834 Q8IMY4 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0072767 Q9W022 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0070224 O76877 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0077585 Q9VQ17 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0075401 P54399 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0075439 Q9VUG9 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0085469 A1Z6P2 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0085470 Q9V9A9 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0074022 Q95TL8 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0074023 Q9VXI3 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0075212 Q961B9 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0080395 Q9V438 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0083548 Q9VD61 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0076804 Q9VRP3 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0086873 Q7JQR3 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0081110 Q9VI96 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0079437 D3DMZ9 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0070717 P47938 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0085636 Q7K037 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0072035 Q9W1I7 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0290637 E1JGY6 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0290634 E1JGY7 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0290635 Q0E9N3 Drosophila melanogaster
FBpp0290638 E1JGY5 Drosophila melanogaster